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Semiconductor and semiconductor diode

The branch of science in which semiconductors and transistors are practiced is called solid state physics or solid state physics. The material used to make semiconductor dyads and transistors is called semiconductor material semiconductor material. Jamium and silicon are two ultra-semiconductor materials. All solid state parts or devices are made of aluminum and silicon. But what is this semiconductor thing? We have learned from the third section that matter is generally divided into two parts according to its ability to transport the material. Namely - conductive conductor and non - conductor or insulator. Conductors are materials that can easily transport electricity, that is, those that can easily carry electricity. And those substances that cannot move through the air are called non-conductive. There is another type of substance, called semiconductor. These substances are neither supportive, nor are they good insulators or insulators. Their conductivity is between the supplying material and the good insulator. The semiconductor electrons can be dynamically propagated. At ordinary temperatures (at room temperature) the semiconductor acts as a conductor. But if the semiconductor crystal or calcium is heated, it quickly loses its radius and becomes a conductive material when it reaches a temperature near the melting point. There is another special religion of semiconductor materials. That is, if a certain amount of impure is mixed with a pure pure semiconductor material, the radiator of the semiconductor decreases very quickly. This type of mixing method is called doping. He was dapped to create a special dyestuff for the semiconductor material. We know that the structure of the proximal material is such that the valence electrons of an incomplete outer cell go into the outer cell of the atom next to the implantable cell. Thus the electrons have the freedom to move from one atom to another. However, the electrons of the full cell inside the atom must be tightly bound to the attraction of the nucleus of that atom. Incomplete cell valence electrons can move freely because they move freely in the aforementioned ways. As a result, the substance becomes a supportive substance. But on the other hand, they cannot transport electrons simply because there are no special independent or free electrons in the extracellular material. Here the electrons are tightly bound to the atom.

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Among the semiconductors that we will discuss here are germanium and silicon, and antimony, arsenic, indium and gallium, respectively. We know from the third section that the last cell of any atom can have a maximum of 1 electrons (valence electrons). And if there are 5 electrons, the atom is in a stable state, that is, at this time the atom becomes insulator or inert. Again, we see in Figure - 16 - 1 - that there are 4 valence electrons in the outer cells of germanium and silicon, 5 valence electrons (pentavalent) in antimony and arsenic, and 3 valence electrons (trivalent) in the case of indium and gallium. Therefore, because each of them is incompatible with the outer orbit, they are each unstable. But every atom is stable

Wants to be in the state, that is, they want to get a maximum of 5 electrons in their outer room. But where and how do they collect the rest of these dying electrons? They collect the rest of their electrons just from the atoms next to them. However, that does not mean that the atoms on the other side give up their electrons at all. Actually. The two atoms, on the other hand, come to an agreement between themselves. That is, two atoms as well, both of which use both electrons on the proton. Using this way - one of the two atoms simultaneously. The electrons form a covalent bond. We can also call this bond a pair of electrons. If you look at the matter, there will be more benefits. Here's how Germanium Crystal is producing K - Valent body. © Speed ​​of the electrician in the semiconductor. We found that, despite having only 4 valence electrons in the outer chamber of the gammonium or silicon, they absorbed the pure intrinsic crystal with the help of the co-valent body with the help of electrons from neighboring atoms. As a result, pure germanium or silicon has no independent or free electrons because they have no transport capacity at normal heat levels. Keeping such pure kellas at a slightly higher temperature will cause some of the atoms of the kellas in thermal excitation; The gland or the major breaks down. Some electrons become free or independent, and rotate between the atoms. Thus if there is one in the outer cell of an atom

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If an electron deficiency occurs, then we can imagine the empty space of the electron as a vacuum, that is, a hole in the bond or hole in the hole. Since the electron is negatively religious, the electron is meant to be deficient. It is believed that the positive hole in the gland or in the bond has been accumulated. Now the question is, will the past be in that state? No, it won't be in that state. An electron will be released from any nearby atoms to scare the hole. In this case, the atom from which the electrons escape will have an electron deficit and there will be a hole in the hole. And an electron will be released from another atom, surrounding it, to fill the hole. In this way, this scattering of electrons to fill the past results in a stream of electrons. Again, since electrons are negative electrons, the flow of electrons produces negative electrons. If you look at this transfer of electrons from a slightly different perspective

If you go, it will be seen that as the transfer of the lectron, the hole is shifting. Since then The hole is positive lightning, so the transfer of momentum means the transfer of positive electrons. In this case, positive electric current flows. So, it turns out that the electrons and halves act as charge carriers. Another thing to know here is that in the direction of the speed of the last or the Hell, the speed of the electron is the opposite. To the side One thing to keep in mind here is that no matter what the temperature, pure semiconductor or semiconductor. There is always an equal number of electrons and the last. Formation of N - type and P - type kelus ® We found that it is possible to adjust the electrical conductivity in pure semiconductor under the influence of heat. But in that case. Their numbers are quite low. But if a small amount of tens of millions (only a tenth of a million) is mixed with pure blinders, that is, doping, then a large amount of electrical conductors is available. This type of kellas is called an extrinsic crysta1. There are usually two types of unrefined callas, namely - N - type and P - type. The English negative word prefix is ​​named 'N' to N - type, and the English positive word 'P' to P - type semiconductor is named. In N - type galaxies, electrons transport electrons, that is, electrons - act as carriers. And the P - type Kellas refine, electrify the holes. The transport capacity of an unreliable semiconductor is much higher than that of twenty transients. & N - Type crystal (N - type crystal) To make N - type kellas, arsenic or antimony is mixed with germanium or silicon as a waste, that is, dapping. Both antimony and arsenic are valence electrons at 5 o'clock. During mixing, its volume is controlled in such a way that its atoms are germanium (or silicon). With no change in the stool structure of the kellas, his (German) Kellas became obedient to the crystal lattice. And the 5 valence electrons of arsenic form the covalent bond of 4 germanium valence electrons (that is, covalent bonds), whereby each valence electron of an atomic atom becomes surplus and independent, and each of the arsenic rotates between the kellas. That's why Nick is called a donor. I know that some of the kellas in thermal excitement, something to break the bond, the electrons come out of the bond and the coefficient of energy, at the point where the electron is released, is filled, and again, to fill these holes. Since the number of independent electrons is much higher than the number (thus the calculus is counted in centimeters by 10 ' The electrons, which are essentially independent electrons, take the leading role in the transport of negative electrons (that is, negative electrons), that is, the 'majority carrier', which is why these kellas are called N-type kellas or crystals. P - type crystal (P - type crystal). On the other hand, with pure germanium or silicone calas, three valence electrodes are present. Indium or ale, minium, etc. are used in mixing, ie dapping, then making P-type kellas. Will be Now let's see how P-type calculus or crystals are formed. Since the three valances of Galiram

Electrons are available, so gallium can form covalent bonds with only three valence electrons of germanium or silicon atoms around them. That is, no cavalent bond will be formed with the fourth valence electron of germanium or silicon, because gallium is lacking an electron. So a hole in the gallium atom will be created for this shortage of electrons. Therefore, each gallium atom under the crystal lattice will create a hole in it, always eager to receive the electrons. That is why gallium is called the acceptor here. Since there is a lack of negative = fice median electrons, the last hole will become positive. Again, since the number of holes in this case is much higher than that of free electrons, the last electromagnetic energy plays a major role in the transport, that is, the majority carrier. This is why this type of kelas is called P - type kelas or crystals. Also, we know here that the N-type semiconductor is the donor and the P-type semiconductor is the acceptor. One more thing to remember here is that none of the N-type or P-type kellas are electrocuted in the end. This is because the negative electrons of the additional electrons of the N - type kelus are elicited by the positive electrons of the nucleus of the arsenic atom. The excessive melt of P-type kellas reacts with a positive electron deficit in the nucleus of the gallium atom. From the above, we find that the type of germanium or silicon semiconductor N - type or P - type will be converted into a calculus, depending on what kind of semiconductor it will hold, depending on the type of semiconductor mixing. That is, if the valence electrons in the mixer are greater than the number of valence electrons in germanium or silicon, then an N-type calculus will be formed. And if the number of valence electrons is less than the number of valence electrons in janium or silicon, then P-type calculus will be formed. P - N junction or junction barrier (P - V junction or junction barrier) - What is the effect of bringing a P-type crystal and an N-type crystal into contact? That will be discussed here. We know that the majority carrier of N - type crystal is the electron, so the number of free electrons here is much higher than the P - region. Again, in P-type crystals the 'last' or 'hail' acts as the carrier of the majority, so the number of motions here is much higher than in the N - region. Now that the N-type and P-type crystals are joined together, it can be seen that the electrons of N are attracted to P's past and are moving towards the junction of P and N. In the same way, P - N is attracted by the electrons of N at the rear of the P - N is moving towards the point of contact. In this case, P - N combines with the electrons in the conjugation and neutralizing each other. In this case, the thin layer barrier is being assayed (assuming, here, a sur; wall is assimilated) on a thin cross resolution. Since this junction is accumulating a barrier and a barrier, it is also called a junction barrier. Some of the halves from the P - type region and some from the N - type region, together with the electrons, accumulate a neutral anode cathode layer at the P - N junction. This layer is called the neutral barrier or the Diplition region. This junction has a slight internal voltage. For this, it is called a potential barrier or space charge region. The P - N crystals are connected in such a way that the semiconductor diode or solid state diode or junction diode are formed. This dyad is one of the parts that are used for our practical purposes. The P type - region of the diode is called the anode and the N - type region is called the cathode. Here the semiconductor dyads and rectifier dyads are symbolized here. িক Semiconductor Diode Electricity - Flow Reaction or Bias • Now with a battery positive supply of P - N conjunction (that is, semiconductor dyad) in the P - area and negative current in the N - field, the voltage can be seen through the socket. Flowing But what is the reason for this storm? Such a combination of batteries leads to the P - N junction, causing the battery's terminal terminal to degenerate into holes in the P - region. Similarly, the negative terminal of the battery in the electrons of the N - region is dispersed and moves towards the P - N junction. But we do know that there is a barrier at the junction (junction barrier), and this barrier prevents the electrons and holes from crossing the junction. But under the influence of the battery's lightning force, some electrons and some, breaking the barrier of the last obstacle, crossed the convection. Beyond the point of contact, they (electrons and electrons) merge with each other and become neutral. Due to which they lost the ability to transport electricity. But with the addition of one electron and one last to the other, a covalent bond is broken near the positive terminal of the battery. In this case, each covalent bond releases one electron and enters the positive terminal of the battery. The mantra goes back to the point of contact with the holes created for the electrons. At the same time, each is past and the one that is electronically congested is the electron deficit. To do this, one of the electrons from the negative terminal of the battery enters the N-zone and moves toward the point of contact. As long as the batteries are connected to the circuit, that is, the voltage - discrimination

As long as the current in the socket continues to flow. In P type crystals, the electrons are electrons in the hole and N - type crystals are electrons. * In the case of electrical current such that the positive terminal of the battery is connected to the P - type crystal and the negative terminal of the battery to the N - type crystal is called P - N junction forward bias or front bias. That is, in this case P - N junction is forward forward bias. So, to put it simply, P - N junctions or P - type crystals of semiconductor dyads have positive voltage from the outside and N - type crystals. Forward bias is the condition that stands for negative voltage supply. In this situation. There is very little radiation against the electrical force, which is forward

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Electricity increases - Bias increases. In this case, one of the goals of the forward buff reverse age is that during the forward bias, the area where the hole is most removed is removed, and the area where the electron is high is removed. There is a strong electric current flowing through it. During forward bias, the voltage drop at the junction of the dyad is reduced to 0: 3 volts in the case of slight jaunium and 07 in the silicon case. If the battery connection is reversed, the battery is negative with P-type crystal. If the terminal is connected to the terminal and the N-type crystal is connected to the positive terminal of the battery, then the condition which will stand is called Reverse Bias or Reverse Bias. This type of combination attracts the negative terminal of the battery P - type crystal and the positive terminal of the battery. N - Type attracts electrons of the crystal. In the jar, the last and the electrons move away from each other. The point to note here is that the area where the hole is less attracted to the former, and the area where the electron is less attracted to the electron. If there is no electrical current in the socket, or if the flow is too low, then this P - N convection creates a very high radius on the way to the current. When this condition is created, it is said that the junction is connected to the reverse bias. During the reverse bias, there is very little leakage current at the junction of the diodes (only a few micro ampere). When the forward bias is conductive, it is either switch off or

open. Use of semiconductor dyad as rectifier or adapter and introduction  to  previous    page

From this we know that the combination of both P and N semiconductors, that is, the semiconductor diode, is strongly proportional to the current - accumulates the flow, but in the opposite direction there is no electric current. This religion of the semiconductor diode can be compared to the rectification of the diode valve. This is why semiconductor diodes are more commonly used for rectifying work. However, semiconductor diodes like diode valves are also used for rectifying work. Only pulsating C Can change to c. This pulsating d. C is pure d. A filter to turn on C. The socket is used. For rectifying, the semiconductor diode acts as the P-type crystal valve's anode. And N - type catheter of turtle valve works. Like valve diodes, semiconductor (blind conductive) diodes can also act as half-wave rectifier and full-wave rectifier. • Halfwave Rectification - A socket diagram showing the use of Half-Wave rectification with semiconductor or semiconductor dyads is shown here. It turns out that at that. C. The voltage is d. It will be converted into AC (AC input) by applying a transformer (T) to the terminal winding terminal terminal (P, and P). In this case the terminal winding of the secondary winding of the transformer (Sj and S9) has an A. C. The voltage is available. At this C. The voltage P - N associated with the S - semiconductor diode enters the P - region. Now the two ends of the lead R (A and B) are D. C. The voltage (output) can be found. At the time of rectifying such. C. How d Here is a diagram showing what turned out to be C. It turns out that A. C. In the first half of the input (0 - r), the semiconductor diode forward is biased when the P region is positive compared to the N region. In which There is a strong electrical current flowing from P to N towards the base of the die. This time A points, positive ones (+) and B points are negative ones (~). Now in the next half (T - 2) P - region N - region.

In comparison, the negative is impregnated and then the diode reverse is biased. At this time, no special electrical current flows through the circuit. This process is repeated several times and direct current (DC) is obtained through the R LED. This current flows in the form of a half-wave at 180 °. The voltage on the two sides of _R is also d. C. And its size is also half sine wave. Like. A circuit diagram showing the full-wave rectification process is shown here with the use of 4 flower-wave rectification and two semiconductor dyads. In addition to the use of an extra diode in this circuit, the type of transformer in it. (T) has a specialty that has been used. Secondary winding of this transformer - Connection point 7 symbol, Bid discrimination is the first prod active (%). The potential difference between the second-acting (1) VS Reebok is three. That is why this type of circuit is called Center Tapped Flower - Wave Rectification Socket. In this socket, the diode is connected to both the terminal points of the P - region (P, and Pa) transformer's secondary winding (S | and S). Terminal point (0) between the secondary (d) through the lead R -

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Regions (N] and Na) are associated with the conjugation (M). Here, too, like the Half-Wave Rectification. C. The input is applied to the transformer's primary and d from the two ends of the latch. C. Output available. Flowers - A. During the wave rectification. C. How d It turns into a C. Show up. A. C. Compared to the point at which the input O, when S, positive, positive, and S9 are negative, the diode D, forward biased and diode D, reverse biased. At that point, the current flows through D, but there is no flow through Da. During the next half-cycle, the opposite happens. Then Sj becomes negative negative and S9 is positively negative compared to O port. So the electromagnetic flow is then through Dq and not through Dq. Therefore, for each use of two dyads, the electromagnetic current flows in the same direction through the lead R. For both diodes in the first and second half of any cycle, the current flows in the same direction through the load R. This is called product consolidation or full-wave rectification. However, there are two disadvantages to this socket. First, its output is low, since both of its diets can only employ half of the transformer's secondary voltage. And secondly the diode used in it, the inverse voltage is very high. Flower - Wave rectification is done somehow. It is called Bridgetype Flower - Wave Rectification. This does not require tapping between the transformer's secondary. However, it consists of four dyads, and the dyads are joined in such a way that they resemble a bridge or a bridge. . Here from the transformer secondary. C. Supply is provided on the two opposite sides of the contiguously connected bridge. The remaining two ends of the bridge have a lead register (RI) attached. During the positive half of the secondary voltage - cycle - the secondary end of the secondary winding of the transformer is either positive, and the Q end is negative. In this case, dyads D and D% generate forward bias, while dyads D and D cause reverse bias. So only D and D diode can handle two. These diodes are connected in series through two lead RLs, and current flows from A to B through the lead RL, as shown by the arrow with the dot dot symbol, and the secondary winding of the secondary voltage during the transformer's secondary winding. P is the edge. Negative liver, and Q edge is positively connected. In this case dyads D and D »accumulate forward bias, whereas dyads D, D and D generate reverse bias. So when only D and Dj can handle two dyads. These dyads are connected in series via two lead RLs, and when the lead flows from A to B through the RL, that is, in the same direction as the positive half - cycle. Whereby we = th V and negative half-cycles in both ends of the lead RI. C. Output. Goes to the feet There are two special advantages of this socket - firstly its output is larger than the transformer socket connected to the center tap at the same secondary voltage. And secondly the center tap which is half its peak invasive voltage compared to the socket. However, there are some disadvantages to this socket. Like A, C. Each half of the input - cycle - conducts two diodes connected during the time series. The center of this socket is larger than the tapped socket in the Jarfoule Center. The voltage drop is twice as the resistance is higher. So when the secondary voltage is low this circuit can be quite inconvenient. How to identify the lead in a semiconductor diode. Different types of semiconductor dyads and rectifier dyads are used for various purposes. The way to know their leads is different too. The following is a picture about it. Semiconductor Diode is a device with dual terminal. One of these terminals is called a cathedral, and another terminal is called anad. It has been shown how different rectifier eathod entailed. (A) (C). The diode's anode and catheter terminals are known. In some cases, the catheter direction of the diode is made just like a gall. In some cases a red or blue stain is drawn on the direction of the catheter. In some cases, the cathedral has a flashlight on the direction, and in the case of a high power rectifier diode, it acts as a catheter. This type of dyad is used as a la-voltage rectifier. They are commonly used in power supply sockets such as radio, tape recorder and TV. Functional properties of the rectifier diode When the anode of the rectifier diode is connected to the battery positive terminal and the cathode to the negative terminal of the battery, the diode begins to conduct, ie the current flows through the diode. In other words, it is a matter of fact that when anode is negative compared to the catheter, the diode does not conduct conductively, ie no current flows through the diode. So it turns out that Enid is the cathedral. The current flows through the medium when the surface is positive, and this time the diode is forward bias. The current does not flow through the negative when compared to the anode catheter, and this time the diode is in the 'bias bias'. In the most recent discussion we have seen that applying forward bias to a P - N conjugate or a semiconductor diode.

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If the socket has a strong electric current, the flow rate increases, and only slightly increase the flow temperature. But when the Rivas Bias is applied, there is no electric current. However, if the voltage is increased in this case a current will flow. This current is called leakage current. The religion of leakage current prevails in all semiconductor dyads. Experiments have shown that in the case of forward bias, the flow rate increases in some cases up to a few amperes. But in reverse bias, the flow rate is only a few micro - amperes. In the case of Rivas Bias, it has been observed that as the flow temperature increases gradually, the flow of a particular voltage suddenly increases. It is thought that at this time the radius of the P - N conjugation or junction is completely broken. Therefore, this particular voltage is called breakdown voltage or generic voltage or avalance voltage. This phenomenon is called genre effect. For this particular quality of semiconductor dyad, there is a generic effect of voltage control. The point at which Zener Veltz is cheap is called. Zener point or Rivus voltage breakdown point. Once the breakdown voltage arrives, the rectifier diode is destroyed. Then to conduct the electricity. Starts Let's say Diad's Revas breakdown voltage is 50 Vt. If there is a 20 bias voltage bias voltage applied here

Then the diode will not conduct and no current will flow through it. And if a 50Volt reverse bias voltage is applied here, then it will be equal to the reverse breakdown of the diode. Also, one thing to keep in mind from this introduction is that if the reverse voltage is close to the breakdown voltage of the dyad, the diode will be lost.