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#### ROBOTICS  KANTI

ROBOTICS INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

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#### Capacitors or condensers

The capacitors are very expensive in electronic sockets. So much on radio, tape recorders and TVs. Capacitors are used. The capacitor is also called a condenser. Plates two plates of metal or any conductor face-to-face and in parallel. Put an insulator or non-insulating material between them and separate the bits into bits. Turns into a capacitor or condenser

The first discovery of Italian scientist Laden 1. It is said that by placing a non-conductive material between two conductive materials and supplying electricity to it, electricity is stored there. Scientists first. Thought that Bidong was stored here, absolutely. Freeze thickness. So they name it. Condenser. But later, they found that electricity does not accumulate at all, it is stored only and can be used in Pyaean. Then they named it capacitor. Of course, both capa images - 11 - 1 sitters and condensers are still in use. Usually U. Condenser and U in K. S. A. - The capacitor name is used in. Conductor shear conductor. Both are called plates, and the non-metallic material in the middle is called die-electric. Or wearing - electricity. For both plates, the roof is usually of any size metal or any conductive material. Can be done The dielectric is usually Avra â€‹â€‹(mica), film foil, fiber, air and wax. Paper (wax paper) is used. | The capacitor stores (ie, stores) the electricity. The capacitor has this electric capacitance. The ability to hold is called its capacitance. The capacitor connected to the socket first stores the electric energy in the form of an electric field and then releases the energy into the circuit at the moment. So the capacitor is used to store electric energy first and then to supply that energy to Prayon. This religion of the capacitor is the exact opposite of the inductor religion. Electricity that is deposited in the capacitor is called a charge. And depositing this capacitor charge is called charging, and discharge of these capacitor deposits is called discharging. Energy when capacitors

When stored, it is said that the capacitor is charged. And when the capacitor releases the energy. When idle, it is said that the capacitor is discharged. Measurement of charges. The unit is called "coulomb" and is expressed by the letter Q.

* Unit or unit of capacitance: -

* Capacitor values: -

In 10 nanos - Farad = 10KPF = 10x 1000 = 10000PF = 019F

In 100 nanos - Farad = 100KPF = 100 x 1000 = 100000PF = 0: 1F

When writing good capacitors in the socket diagram, the letters MF or M or wF or mfd, NC or N and ft or P are used. Also use four of the letters E, K, M and N as registers. Is done

Here, E = Pico - farad (PF), K = Kilo Pico - farad (KPE), M = Microfarad (MF) and N = Nano - farad (NF)

Below are a few examples of how these four characters are used. Namely _

E8 = 08PF 560E = 560PF 56K = 56 Kilo PF 4E7 = 4: 7 PF 7K6 = 7: 6 Kilo PF 2MF6 = 26 Micro farad 1N5 = 1: 5KPF = 1: 5x1000 = 1500PF

* Properties of Capacitor: -

The religion of the capacitor is usually three. Correct); <s (a) Capacitors store energy in the form of electrical fields. (b) If there is any variation of voltage in an electric circuit, the capacitance of the capacitor prevents it. (c) Capacitor A. C. Let the electricity flow, but d. C. Stops the flow of electricity. Capacitor valve, the higher the A. The ability to inhibit C (redness) will decrease as much. This capacitor is called its 'impedance'. A higher frequency A. C. Signals (such as radio signals) can easily pass through a low-value capacitor. But in general A. C. The value of capacitors is higher than current. Again the capacitor value is more or less whatever it is. C. Obstructs the current route and does not allow him to leave.

* Capacitive Reactance: -

In a circuit if A. C. If the current flows, the capacitor connected to the circuit will accept the charge first, and when the charge is received, the capacitor voltage will obstruct the path of the voltage flowing in the circuit (very little). Therefore, no A. C. The capacitor barrier that causes the current to flow in the circuit is called capacitive reactivity. It is expressed using the letter 'xc' and its unit of measure is o. From this we get the following session. Namely | Xc = 1. à§¬ 2fcÂ® 6: 28fc T = 314] Here, Xc = capacitive reactance in ohms. f = frequency per second in cycles or hearts and c = capacitance at faraday. Therefore, from the above session we can come to some of the following conclusions, such as (i) When f = 0 (that is, DC), the capacitive reaction (Xc) will be infinite. (ii) If f is infinite, the capacitive reaction will be zero. (iii) If f increases (when c is constant), then the capacitive reactance will decrease. That is to say, simply say, f and c will be less than Xc and f and c will be reduced by Xc.

* D. Capacitor charging method with C: -

He was charged by applying voltage to both the terminal points of the capacitor. During this time the electrons in the socket begin to flow. This flow is called the charging current. In addition, an electrostatic field is created between the capacitor plates. The power plates of this feed are proportional to the patent differential. # Figure - 11 - 2 - shows that the capacitor plate is in neutral, since the capacitor is connected to a voltage array. This time the capacitor is an external or external D. C. Associated with Voltage Sears | Aj is taken (Fig. 11 - 3), that is, a capacitor - negative. The plate was attached to the supply voltage positive tu9), and the other plate was attached to the fil negative in the supply voltage. Now the plate between the two pods of power - the difference between the plate goes between the two plates. The creation of an electric field in the middle. Will be A plateau containing the positive voltage will be added to the positive charge, while a plate with a negative charge will be added to the negative charge. The more electrons that will be emitted from the positive plate, the more electrons will be added to the negative plate. As many lines as this:

) Of Lines of Force - 1 matched number will increase, then voltage. The whole trj will increase the amount of liver. When ) When the capacitor voltage reaches its maximum value, the field - plate intensity or intensity will reach the highest image - 11 - 4 range. This maximum position will be retained as long as the capacitor is connected to the extensible voltage array. From here, we can find out more about when a capacitor can be d C. When the voltage is connected to the sass, the charging current flows for only a short time, then the flow is killed. In other words, capacitors D, C, obstruct the flow. And as long as the capacitor is charged, the electric field exists between the two plates.

* Discharging method of capacitor: -

For recovery, the terminal of the capacitor should recover the stored electric capacitor in the capacitor; The creation of an electric 3 trickle conducting path between the points has to be parsed (Figure - 11 - 5). 22) Current path is called "This figure of the discharge Elaine's chord recovers energy from a charging capacitor sh2 - 11 - 5. | The work is called discharging the capacitor. During discharge - capacitor negative. Stored on a plate. Excess electrons flow into the positive plate through the discharge path. In this way the negative charge of the negative plate will decrease if the electrons are flowing in one direction. During the discharge, this current of electrons is nothing but a current. And a little scientifically. Talk neutralplate is to say, 'discharge current'. | When both plates of the capacitor are electrically neutral. When the capacitor is charged, the point is charged. Then it can be said that the capacitor is completely discharged. Are in position (Fig. - 11 - 6). For practical purposes the terminal point of the capacitor 2. Figure - 11 - 6 When connecting the two with a conductive cable, the capacitor will be discharged.

* How the capacitor works: -

How the capacitors work is well known from the above chasing and discharging. The point here is a little simpler. When the capacitor is batteries or any other d. C. The capacitor is then connected to the voltage array. The charge is that the capacitor is stored in the electric current. This method is called charging. Again. The capacitor is routed from the battery or voltage source to a conductor to both of the capacitor plates. By adding the capacitor, the accumulated electric current gradually decreases. This method is called discharging. Suppose A and B are two plates of the capacitor and two of these plates are connected to a battery of E electric force (Figure - 11 - 7). Now the electrons from the negative end of the battery will continue to flow towards the A plate of the capacitor, and at the same time the electrons will flow from the B plate of the capacitor to the positive end of the battery. In this case, the positive and negative electricity of the plate in both plates will prevent the flow of electrons. That amount of capacitor becomes charged. Electricity stores both plates, the same amount of voltage - the discrepancy increases on both plates. Again, when the voltage of the battery becomes equal to E, the charging current will become zero as the voltage increases. In this case the capacitor must be fully charged. One thing to keep in mind here is that the charging method does not happen immediately, hence it takes some time. The charging current is highest when the capacitor starts charging, then gradually the charging figure - 11 - 7 flow decreases, and when the capacitor is fully charged, the charging flow drops to zero. Similarly, when discharging starts, the discharge flow is highest and gradually decreases. At least when the capacitor is completely discharged, the flow goes to zero. Needless to say - its. Discharging like this does not happen immediately, it also requires some time.

* A. Capacitor charging method with head: -

We know that alternating current (AC) travels in the form of sine waves (Figs. 11 - 8). One Condenser has an A. C. When connected with voltage array it is seen that the charging current from A point / A. C. Dontz starts to flow and goes toward the positive, and when B reaches point B, the capacitor's charging is highest (Figure - 11 - 9)! At the point C G A = B, the capacitor is fully charged. As the charging current (voltage) reaches the peak at point B, this current decreases from point B. As the charging voltage decreases in the amplitude of the voltage, the capacitor starts to discharge. Again the voltage of the capacitor decreases as the charge is lost. When C reaches the point to reduce the capacitor charge. The capacitor becomes completely discharged.

When the charge reaches the point D in the opposite direction, the capacitor is fully charged . At this point, the charge starts to decline, that is, the capacitor starts to discharge again. And when E reaches the point, the capacitor is discharged on completion (Figure 11 - 12). O e | The capacitor circuit is 90 Â° ahead of the current voltage. Remain Can be expressed in the form of a cav (Figure - 11 - 13). a le9. From here we learned that the capacitor plate is at. C. When voltage is applied, some current flows into the current circuit, whereby a 9 Â° capacitor is charged for the first time and discharges the next time.

Then again the current and voltage of the capacitor increases, that is, the capacitor starts to charge again. This time, however, the opposite is the opposite. The polarity of the charge also changes, so the direction of current will change. Then the phase difference between current (I) and voltage (E) will stand 90 Â°. The capacitor charge will be zero, while the current in the circuit is highest. Again, when the charge is the highest, the amount of karst will be zero.The voltage on the capacitor is 90Â°behind the current, that is, the current goes 90Â°ahead of the current voltage.

* Thus within a second a capacitor charges several times a figure - 11 - 13 9 and discharges. â€¢ Working voltage of the capacitor. We know that the capacitors have a capacitance value. AK capacitor D C. Of workingveltages. Is identified with the help. What is the maximum charging voltage that can be applied to a capacitor? D. C. Fixes the working voltage. If the voltage at the capacitor exceeds the specified level, then the layer of insulation used in the capacitor is likely to collapse. That is, the working voltage is the capacitor breakdown voltage. Breakdown voltage die - combines between the capacitor plates through the electric. This causes the capacitor to become short (that is, short). If you need to replace the old capacitor with a new capacitor, it is important to note the capacitors' valves and the walking voltage. A. C. The voltage is r. m. s. Is expressed in the valet. And its peak value is 141 times greater than peak val. So if using a capacitor in a 230V AC socket, it needs to be 230x1: 41 = 3243. The capacitor's capacitance generally depends on four factors.

Namely (i) the area of â€‹â€‹platelets (area of â€‹â€‹a plates); (ii) the distance between the plates; (iii) number of plates; (iv) Dielectric. The area of â€‹â€‹the plates and the capacitors of the plates is proportional to the area of â€‹â€‹the plates. Therefore, the capacitance will increase as the area of â€‹â€‹the plate ie size or size increases. And if the area is low, the capacities will decrease. If the area of â€‹â€‹the plate is doubled, then the capacity will be doubled. That is, it appears that if the plateau area or area is greater, then his charge will be greater. So, in more places the charge will accumulate more, that is, more free electrons will be available for higher charges. Distance between key plates The lower the distance between different plates used in the capacitor, the greater the capacitor's capacitance. The greater the distance between the plates, the less the capacitance. That is, the capacitor's capacitance is inversely proportional to the barrier between its plates. When the distance between the plates is short, the force of attraction between the two opposite charges will be very high. And the number of plates - If the number of plates used in the capacitor is high, then its capacities will be higher. Because as the number of plates increases, the area of â€‹â€‹the plate increases. Again, as the area of â€‹â€‹the capacitor increases, the capacitance increases as the number of plates in the capacitor increases. And the die - electric capacitor - the dielectric between the two plates depends on the capacitor's capacitance. Each die - electric has its own specific fixed dielectric, namely dielectric constant {dielectric constant). It is expressed with the letter 'K'. For example in the case of wind, the value of 'K' is 1. Die-electric constants are the capacitors' capability, which allow them to create electric lines, off-force between two opposite charges. When used as a dielectric other than air, it increases the capacitance of the capacitor, as their die - electric constant is higher than air. The following list will help you understand this. Die - Electric As Die - Electric | Dye - Dye as Electric - Substances used in electric. | Constant (K). The substance used is Constant (K) air. Glass. 42. Rubber. Porcelain 55 Paper 3 - 5 Mica (Avr) 5 - 9 Typ Types of Capacitor. All capacitors or condensers are mainly divided into two parts. Namely - fixed, condenser and variable condenser. Apart from these two components, the capacitors are different. According to the shape, size and structure, divide them into several more sections. Is done This is discussed in more detail on the next page.

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